งานปุ๋ย และดินชีวภาพ
 
  QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  
 
 
 
 
BIO-­FERTILIZERS  ARE  THE  BASE OF  AGRICULTURE
PRODUCTS  QUALITY  IMPROVEMENT: 
Organic waste of stockbreeding complexes and processing industry are fertilizers themselves. But the efficiency of such fertilizers is just 10-­15% of possible. In processing of these waste products on biogas plant, takes place a substantial improvement of their properties.
 
Depending on storage method and time organic waste lose 25-50% of organic matter and nutrients (first of all nitrogen N). There is more loss at frost action with the following defrosting up to 70%. In the table 1 there are shown the average loss of nitrogen and organic matter depending on the period of storage.
 
     
 
Table1. The average loss of nitrogen N and organic matter depending on the period of storage %
 
     
 
Loss  
Substrate  
Period  of    Storage    
 

Organic Waste
2 Months
4 Months
6 Months
Total Nitrogen
15-20
25-35
40
Organic Matter
20-25
30-35
50
 
     
 
In Europe there has been applying for twenty thirty years now a new energy-­saving technology of processing the organic waste to bio-­fertilizers. This technology makes it possible to get the natural bio-­fertilizer by means of anaerobic digestion. This fertilizer is rich in bioactive substances and microelements. The main advantages of bio-fertilizers compared to conventional fertilizers (mould, manure etc) are form, availability and nutrients balance, high level of organic humification.
 
Organic matter is a powerful energy material for soil microorganisms that is why after its application activation of nitrogen-­fixing and other microbiological processes occur in soil. In table 2 there are given the data of bio-­fertilizers composition.
 
     
   
     
     
  HUMUS  
 
 
 
 
Humus (solid bio-­fertilizer) resource plays an essential role in maintenance of ecological balance in soils. Humus is breeding ground for soil-generating microorganisms, which stimulate
plant alimentation, their growing processes.
 
Humus base consists of phytogenous organic residuals: least decayed fractions, continuing  to   decay  fractions,  complex  substances  generated  as   a   result  of hydrolysis  and  oxidation  and  substances  resulted  from  microorganisms  vital activity.
 
     
  Humic acids, fulvic acids and salts of these acids, also humins -­ stable compounds of humic, fulvic acids with gravel and sludge enter into the composition of humus. Humins have sizeable specific surface (600-­1000m2/g), big adsorptive capacity. In comparison with other fertilizers, when applicating small ammount of humus to soil the composition and structure of microflora changes. This results in changing of microbiological conditions of soils, intensification of substances and energy transformation  processes.  As  a  result  metabolic  processes  quicken,  new development cycles of microflora begin, particularly the activity of nitrogen-­fixing bacterias intensifies. This results in enrichment of nutrient medium.  
     
 
 
Soils, which can be applicated by humus fertilizers are characterized by the following features:
♦ mobility of soil phosphorus rises;
♦  processes of nitro-­‐formation  in soil activate, that promotes also considerable growth of total  and  protein  nitrogen,  increase  of carbonic acid liberation from soil;
♦  ingress   of   ammoniac   forms   of   nitrogen, phosphorus in plants quickens;
♦  concentration of potassium, aluminium rises when amount of magnesium is reduced, notably humates exert considerable influence on content and dynamics of ground cations.
 
     
   
     
     
  ADVANTAGE OF BIO-FERTILIZERS  
 
 
 
Bio-­fertilizers from biogas plant are much more better by many characteristics than other organic fertilizers (mould, manure, peat). There are some of them:
 
     
 
 
♦ The absence of weed seeds. In pig and cattle manure and peat usually is present a big amount     of  weed  seeds.  In  1  ton  of  fresh manure is up to 10 thousands of different weeds seeds, which   going through animals’ stomach don’t lose the ability to sprout. It results  in  loss  of  crop  from  5  to  7  metric centners of grain crops from one hectare.
 
     
 
♦ Absence of pathogenic microflora. Many agents of plant diseases spread through organic fertilizers. For example mould may contain more than 100 dangerous for animals and men deseases: anthrax, tuberculosis, brucellosis, paratyphoid, paratuberculosis, foot and mouth disease, salmonellosis, ascaridiasis, enteric infections. These  are  only  some  of  them.  Pig  mould  has  total  microbial  impurity  from  4,1  to 3,610-­9, content cryptogamic anaerobes from 10-­2  to 10-4, coli titer is from 10-5  to 10-­7.

Bio-fertilizers   are  completely  decontaminated  from  pathogenic  microflora  due  to special technology of processing in biogas plant.
 
♦ Presence of active microflora contributing to the intensive plant growth. Organic waste which are used as fertilizers don’t have or contain small amount of microflora. Mould contain 109 colonies/gr. of different microfloras including pathogenic. Bio-­‐fertilizers contain 1012 -­‐   1014 colonies/gr. of microfloras, but pathogenic microflora is entirely absent.
 
♦ Absence  of  adaptation  period.  Mould  and  other  organics  require continuous preparation (6-­‐12  months) before application in ground. Useful matters containing in them partially are lost and others have an effect in soil only in 2-­‐4 years after their application. Bio-­‐fertilizers  begin to effect immediately after application due to their form.
 
♦ Resistance to nutrients wash-­out  from soil. During the season nearly 80% of organic fertilizers are washed out from soil, that’s why it is necessary to add them yearly in big amount. For the same time up to 15% of bio-­fertilizes are washed out from soil. Hereby the small amount bio-fertilizes  applied to your fields will effect for 3-­5  years longer than usual fertilizes.
 
♦ Maximum nitrogen preservation and accretion. Insufficient amount of nitrogen in soil results in decrease of crop capacity of many crop species. But the effective growth of plants is retarded, their resistance to different deseases is reduced. Continuous nitrogen starvation leads to albuminolysis and chlorophyll breakdown. Up to 50% of nitrogen is lost after prolonged storage (composting) of organic waste. Amount of total nitrogen N in bio-­‐fertilizers will entirely remain due to anaerobic fermentation of organic waste in biogas plant, in addition the contents of soluble nitrogen Nh4-­n  will increase for 10 -­15%.
 
     
   
     

 
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