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  Anaerobic Digesters (Contd.)  
     
   
     
  MSW to Energy-An Environmental Friendly Technology  
  Introduction  
  Municipal Solid Waste  
 
  »  Typically un-segregated and mixed bio degradable waste
  » Characterized by volume production
  » Contains approx. 46% of organic fraction
  » Organic  waste is an abundant and underutilized source of renewable energy
 
     
  Treatment  Technology Overview
 
  Biogas Plant
 
 

»
Consisting of hermetically  sealed digesters
  »
Feed stock can be single material or a mixture
  » Can be small plants to product energy for local needs
  » Can be gigantic centralized Energy Parks for gas and electric power supply to the national grid
 
     
  Biogas
 
 
  »
Produced by means of anaerobic digestion of biomass.
  » Microorganisms metabolize carbon from organic substrates in oxygen-free environment (anaerobic).
  »
Also called rotting or oxygen-free digestion.
  »
Consists of approximately 60% methane (CH4) and 40% of carbon dioxide (CO2).
  » Caloric value ranges between 6000 to 7500 kcal.
 
     
  Bio-Fertilizer  
 
  »
Efficiency is defined by active substance N-P-K- and its biological compound
  »
Biological compounds of bio-fertilizes are humic acids and macro elements
  »
Application of bio-fertilizers can increase crop yields up to 30-50%.
 
     
  Electrical and Heat Power
 
 
  »
It is possible to produce 2.4 kWh of electric + 2.8 kWh of heat power from 1m3 of biogas (at 60% methane in biogas)
  »
Biogas is used as a fuel in the co-generation plant without any upgrading
  »
No need to burn biogas separately to produce heat power
  »
Heat power is recovered from the co-generation plants engine cooling system
 
     
  Bio-Methane  
 
  »
Application - Filling gas into vehicles i.e. car. cars supplying it into the national gas grid.
  »
Can be upgraded by CO2 removal.
  » After the upgrading process, gas has the quality of natural gas (98-99% methane CH4)
 
     
  By-Product Advantages/Benefits
 
    » Co - Generation  
  Use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat
 
  ADVANTAGES COMPARED TO ANALOGS
 
 
 
oil change at 2000 operational hours but not at 500 hours
 
High electric efficiency up to 40% total efficiency electricity+heat up to 90%
 
High reliability
 
   » Biogas - To - Methane  
 
 
Biogas Purification
 
Similar to natural gas with a methane concentration 95-99%
 
Can be used as vehicle fuel or fed to the national grid gas supply network of middle and or low pressure or for any technological need for complete replacement of natural gas
 
   » Fertilizer Drying  
 
 
Allows more efficient exploitation of the biogas plant and increases its profitability
 
Dried fertilizers have a higher price in comparison with separated biomass
 
When dried and granulated can be easily transported with cost saving to any distance and have long storage periods
 
     
  Biogas yield estimation  
 
   MSW (Un - separated)
TPD 300  
  MSW (Separated)
tpd 140.4  
  Qty / year
TPY 51246  
  Dry Matter (DM)
% 50  
  Dry Matter (DM)
TPD 70.2  
  Organic Dry Matter (ODM) in DM
% 60  
  Organic Dry Matter (ODM) in DM
TPD 35.1  
  Biogas Yield
M3/kg ODM
0.4  
  Biogas Yield
M3/day
14040  
  Biogas Yield
M3/year 5124600
 
 
     
  300 Ton per Day MSW  
  Plant capacity  
 
  Electric Power KW 1401  
  Heat Power KW 1467  
  Electric Energy KWH/year 11208000  
 
     
     
     
     
     
 
 
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